Tobacco is another of the most commonly used drugs in the world, and although legislation in many countries prohibits smoking in certain rooms, smoking or marketing nicotine products (especially tobacco) is not prohibited. It is a substance that may seem relaxing to experienced smokers, but it is actually a psychostimulant whose main mechanism of action is on acetylcholine. Psychosocial factors related to drug use and abuse in older adults, including prescription and over-the-counter medications, have been documented as including depression1, stress5 and self-medication2. Depression can have atypical or non-specific symptoms that are exacerbated by drug use, as they can alter mood and accelerate cognitive decline, increase depressive manifestations, and increase the risk of suicide.7, 8 So far, we`ve talked about substances that are licensed in most parts of the world, whether recreational or otherwise. Note, however, that the law is not the same in all regions of the world. Which medicines are considered legal or not depend on the legislation of the country concerned. One of the cases where we see this variability the most is cannabis, whose legal consideration varies greatly in different countries around the world. Although few people consider them drugs, the truth is that they are substances that produce a change in brain chemistry that has effects on behavior, so they can be considered as such. These are substances with a stimulating effect, which usually cause an increase in brain activation. Of course, its effects are much less than those of other substances and require large quantities to become dangerous. Table 1 shows Table 1 on lifetime use compared by sex, for males, the following results were presented: alcohol (98.90%), tobacco (86.26%), marijuana (48.35%), tranquilizers (45.60%), cocaine (20.88%), hallucinogens (19.23%) and crack or stone (13.74%). For females, these were alcohol (86.39%), tobacco (73.82%), tranquilizers (45.55%) and marijuana (16.75%). The most commonly used drugs in the past 30 days among females were alcohol (41.4%) and tobacco (31.4%) and alcohol (40.1%) and tranquilizers (20.9%) among males.
These are drugs that need to be regulated and, in many cases, banned, and take advantage of the slowness of jurisdictions to enact laws or regulations in this regard in order to pretend to be legal. In reality, they are in a situation of illegality: the legislation does not yet provide for them. This is therefore due to a kind of escalation or competition: as some drugs are banned and prosecuted, others emerge that exploit the loopholes. Of course, as we indicated in the introduction, they are legal does not mean that they do not pose a danger, since their abuse and / or misuse are very dangerous and harmful to health and can cause serious illness or even death. Study of 380 older people, Facebook users®, who responded to a questionnaire published online that asked questions about socio-demographic data, frequency and amount of legal and illegal drug use, and depressive symptoms. The high prevalence of depression (30 to 40%), observed in the elderly and reported by various studies, confirms that it is a risk group that develops addictive behaviors towards drugs, alcohol and other drugs1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, problems that can go unnoticed, especially in people living alone. When analyzing the indicator of depressive symptomatology, it was found that 13.94% had severe symptoms, 47.89% mild and 38.15% had no symptoms. For lifetime drug use (n=368), 53 had symptoms of major depression, 174 had mild symptoms, and 141 had no symptoms. The results show the need to make drug use visible in older adults and to develop strategies that reduce possible mood swings such as anxiety, anxiety and depression. Due to heroin`s high addictive potential, it is very difficult for many users to stop using, so drug substitution programs such as methadone or buprenorphine can be implemented in treatment.
Methadone has been used for several decades as an aid to treat heroin addiction, always under strict medical supervision. It is a synthetic opioid that binds to the same receptors as heroin, but produces less effect. When taken orally, the effect is gradual and persistent, the desire for other opioids is reduced, and the symptoms of withdrawal syndrome are avoided. When used correctly, methadone allows for joint daily activities. However, over the counter, it is also a substance that can generate abuse and dependence. The habit of smoking damages almost every organ in the body, also causes premature aging of the skin and is directly linked to many cancers such as the lungs or oral cavity, as published by the portal « salud180 ». In the case of illicit drug use at any time in life, marijuana stands out at 32.11%, tranquilizers 45.26%, cocaine 14.21%, hallucinogens 13.16%, opiates 7.37%, crack or stone and inhalants each 6.58%, amphetamines 5.79% and methamphetamines 4.21%. In the last 30 days, the use of tranquilizers is relevant in 16.05%, marijuana 7.89%, cocaine 2.63%, crack or stone, inhalable solvents and amphetamines with 1.32%. The percentage of seniors who did not use in the past 30 days was 37.9%, while 41.1% had used only one drug and 21.1% had used 2 or more drugs (multipurpose drug use). In the psyche of most Spanish speakers, the term drug is associated with an illegal substance: when we hear about drugs, the first names that probably come to mind are cocaine, heroin, ecstasy or LSD. Table 2 shows that all drugs except tobacco and opiates, except heroin, were independently associated with symptoms of depression.
The percentages of symptoms of major depression varied by drug used: heroin affected 83.33%, inhalant 60.00%, methamphetamines 56.25%, crack or stone 52.00%, cocaine 42.59%, hallucinogens 40.00%, marijuana 32.79%, tranquilizers 26.74% and amphetamine 22.73%. These are substances that are legal because their initial use is not associated with the consumption or administration of the substance as such in the body. The volatile name is due to the fact that the route of administration is usually inhaled or aspirated. These are substances such as glue, gasoline, anesthetics or ketones that some people use to notice psychoactive effects, usually of the depressed type. The purpose of this survey is to find out the « global and most important » trends in drug use in Mexico, according to the document. The results of this survey show, among other things, an increase in marijuana use among men and women of all ages and the need for urgent implementation of prevention programs in some states. Drug sniffing increased from 1.4 per cent in 2002 to 2.4 per cent in 2008. These substances are the cause of irritation of the nasal and oral mucous membranes. The most serious damage caused by these drugs is blindness, stroke, memory loss, and heart problems. The cannabis plant contains about 500 different chemical compounds, more than 70 of which are cannabinoids.
The main psychoactive substance in marijuana is delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, or THC. The highest concentration of THC is found in the flowers of female plants, hashish and cannabis oil. Another important phytocannabinoid is cannabidiol (CBD), which, unlike THC, has no psychoactive effects. Some synthetic cannabinoids have been developed to look for molecules that might have therapeutic benefits, but others are synthesized in secret labs to be sold as abusing substances. These are not copies of the plant`s molecules, as the colloquial names of « synthetic cannabis » or « synthetic marijuana » suggest. Although they act on the same receptors as THC, synthetic cannabinoids have more intense psychoactive effects and greater toxicity. The best known are « Spice » and « K2 », but there are many others with code names, usually starting with the letters JWH, AM or HU, followed by numbers. Buyers of these substances recognize them well, but are generally unknown to the general public. Synthetic cannabinoids of this type are dissolved in liquids used to spray conventional herbs to market them as natural products and are among the so-called « new psychoactive substances ». Most cannabinoids act on two main types of receptors: CB1 and CB2.